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Datum Conversion

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Subject:Datum Conversion
Summary:Changes necessary for datum conversion
Messages:1
Author:Vick Airfull
Date:2012-07-04 12:28:04
 

  1. Datum Conversion   Reply   Report abuse  
Picture of Vick Airfull
Vick Airfull
2012-07-04 12:28:04
I've implemented a few new functions inside the exsiting code to provide datum conversion using the "Simple Three Parameter XYZ" (according to the equations and instructions found at http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum_f.html)

The basic idea is use the code as following (this example convert from ED50 to WGS84):

<?php
$pt =& new gPoint("International"); //using "International" ellipsoid (for ED50 datum)
$pt->setUTM( $ex, $ey, $ez);
//Here you can use $pt->E(), $pt->N() and $pt->Z() functions
$pt->convertTMtoLL(); // Convert to Lat/Long in original Datum
// Here you can use $pt->Lat() and $pt->Long() functions
$pt->convertLLtoECEF(); // Convert to XYZ in ECEF (Earth Centered Earth Fixed). First stage of conversion
$pt->ChangeDATUMbyXYZ("ED 50","WGS 84"); //Convert Datum using "simple Three Parameter" method from ED50 (original) to WGS84 (new). Second stage
$pt->convertECEFtoLL(); // Convert to Lat/long in new Datum. Third stage
// Here you can use $pt->Lat() and $pt->Long() functions
$pt->convertLLtoTM(); //Convert to UTM in new Datum
//Here you can use $pt->E(), $pt->N() and $pt->Z() functions
?>

The code only includes parameters (XYZ) for transformation from European_1950 datums, but it easy to add new transformations adding the parameters needed (check http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum_f.html) to the new defined $xyz array in the code.

I hope it would help anyone so I would like to post my changes here but as I donīt know if I can upload a new gPoint.php file I will paste here the contents of the new gPoint.php (I've named it gPoint-1.4b.php):

<?php
/*------------------------------------------------------------------------------
** File: gPoint.php
** Description: PHP class to convert Latitude & Longitude coordinates into
** UTM & Lambert Conic Conformal Northing/Easting coordinates.
** Version: 1.3
** Author: Brenor Brophy
** Email: brenor dot brophy at gmail dot com
** Homepage: brenorbrophy.com
**------------------------------------------------------------------------------
** COPYRIGHT (c) 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 BRENOR BROPHY
**
** The source code included in this package is free software; you can
** redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
** License as published by the Free Software Foundation. This license can be
** read at:
**
** http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php
**
** This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
** ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
** FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
**------------------------------------------------------------------------------
**
** Code for datum and UTM conversion was converted from C++ code written by
** Chuck Gantz (chuck dot gantz at globalstar dot com) from
** http://www.gpsy.com/gpsinfo/geotoutm/ This URL has many other references to
** useful information concerning conversion of coordinates.
**
** Rev History
** -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
** 1.0 08/25/2005 Initial Release
** 1.1 05/15/2006 Added software license language to header comments
** Fixed an error in the convertTMtoLL() method. The latitude
** calculation had a bunch of variables without $ symbols.
** Fixed an error in convertLLtoTM() method, The $this-> was
** missing in front of a couple of variables. Thanks to Bob
** Robins of Maryland for catching the bugs.
** 1.2 05/18/2007 Added default of NULL to $LongOrigin arguement in convertTMtoLL()
** and convertLLtoTM() to eliminate warning messages when the
** methods are called without a value for $LongOrigin.
** 1.3 02/21/2008 Fixed a bug in the distanceFrom method, where the input parameters
** were not being converted to radians prior to calculating the
** distance. Thanks to Enrico Benco for finding pointing it out.
** 1.4b 07/04/2012 (changes by perdigano [beta])
** Included new methods and variables for datum conversion based
** on simple three parameter XYZ and geodetic coordinates, according
** to equations and instructions found at
** http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum_f.html
**
*/
define ("meter2nm", (1/1852));
define ("nm2meter", 1852);

/*------------------------------------------------------------------------------
** class gPoint ... for Geographic Point
**
** This class encapsulates the methods for representing a geographic point on the
** earth in three different coordinate systema. Lat/Long, UTM and Lambert Conic
** Conformal.
*/
class gPoint
{
/* Reference ellipsoids derived from Peter H. Dana's website-
** http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum_f.html
** email: pdana@pdana.com, web page: www.pdana.com
**
** Source:
** Defense Mapping Agency. 1987b. DMA Technical Report: Supplement to Department
** of Defense World Geodetic System 1984 Technical Report. Part I and II.
** Washington, DC: Defense Mapping Agency
*/
var $ellipsoid = array(//Ellipsoid name, Equatorial Radius, square of eccentricity
"Airy" =>array (6377563, 0.00667054),
"Australian National" =>array (6378160, 0.006694542),
"Bessel 1841" =>array (6377397, 0.006674372),
"Bessel 1841 Nambia" =>array (6377484, 0.006674372),
"Clarke 1866" =>array (6378206, 0.006768658),
"Clarke 1880" =>array (6378249, 0.006803511),
"Everest" =>array (6377276, 0.006637847),
"Fischer 1960 Mercury" =>array (6378166, 0.006693422),
"Fischer 1968" =>array (6378150, 0.006693422),
"GRS 1967" =>array (6378160, 0.006694605),
"GRS 1980" =>array (6378137, 0.00669438),
"Helmert 1906" =>array (6378200, 0.006693422),
"Hough" =>array (6378270, 0.00672267),
"International" =>array (6378388, 0.00672267),
"Krassovsky" =>array (6378245, 0.006693422),
"Modified Airy" =>array (6377340, 0.00667054),
"Modified Everest" =>array (6377304, 0.006637847),
"Modified Fischer 1960" =>array (6378155, 0.006693422),
"South American 1969" =>array (6378160, 0.006694542),
"WGS 60" =>array (6378165, 0.006693422),
"WGS 66" =>array (6378145, 0.006694542),
"WGS 72" =>array (6378135, 0.006694318),
"WGS 84" =>array (6378137, 0.00669438)
);

/*
**
**
**
**
*/

var $xyz = array(//Datum, Ellipsoid, Delta a, Delta f (* 10^4), Delta X, Delta Y, Delta Z
"European_1950" =>array ("International", -251.0, -0.14192702, -87, -96, -120),
"European_1950_mean" =>array ("International", -251.0, -0.14192702, -87, -98, -121),
"ED 50" =>array ("International", -251.0, -0.14192702, -84, -107, -120),
"European_1979" =>array ("International", -251.0, -0.14192702, -86, -98, -119),
"WGS 84" =>array ("WGS 84", 0.0, 0.0, 0, 0, 0)
);


// Properties
var $a; // Equatorial Radius
var $e2; // Square of eccentricity
var $datum; // Selected datum
var $Xp, $Yp; // X,Y pixel location
var $lat, $long, $h; // Latitude & Longitude of the point (and height)
var $utmNorthing, $utmEasting, $utmZone; // UTM Coordinates of the point
var $lccNorthing, $lccEasting; // Lambert coordinates of the point
var $falseNorthing, $falseEasting; // Origin coordinates for Lambert Projection
var $latOfOrigin; // For Lambert Projection
var $longOfOrigin; // For Lambert Projection
var $firstStdParallel; // For lambert Projection
var $secondStdParallel; // For lambert Projection
var $ecefX, $ecefY, $ecefZ; // For Earth Centered Earth Fixed XYZ Cartesian Coordinates

// constructor
function gPoint($datum='WGS 84') // Default datum is WGS 84
{
$this->a = $this->ellipsoid[$datum][0]; // Set datum Equatorial Radius
$this->e2 = $this->ellipsoid[$datum][1]; // Set datum Square of eccentricity
$this->datum = $datum; // Save the datum
}
//
// Set/Get X & Y pixel of the point (used if it is being drawn on an image)
//
function setXY($x, $y)
{
$this->Xp = $x; $this->Yp = $y;
}
function Xp() { return $this->Xp; }
function Yp() { return $this->Yp; }
//
// Set/Get/Output Longitude & Latitude of the point
//
function setLongLat($long, $lat)
{
$this->long = $long; $this->lat = $lat; $this->h = 0;
}

function setLongLatHeight($long, $lat, $h)
{
$this->long = $long; $this->lat = $lat; $this->h = $h;
}

function Lat() { return $this->lat; }
function Long() { return $this->long; }
function Height() { return $this->h; }

function printLatLong() { printf("Latitude: %1.5f Longitude: %1.5f",$this->lat, $this->long); }
function printLatLongHeight() { printf("Latitude: %1.5f Longitude: %1.5f Height: %1.5f",$this->lat, $this->long, $this->h); }

function xyzX() { return $this->ecefX; }
function xyzY() { return $this->ecefY; }
function xyzZ() { return $this->ecefZ; }

function printXYZ() { printf("X: %1.5f Y: %1.5f Z: %1.5f",$this->ecefX, $this->ecefY, $this->ecefZ); }

//
// Set/Get/Output Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinates
//
function setUTM($easting, $northing, $zone='') // Zone is optional
{
$this->utmNorthing = $northing;
$this->utmEasting = $easting;
$this->utmZone = $zone;
}
function N() { return $this->utmNorthing; }
function E() { return $this->utmEasting; }
function Z() { return $this->utmZone; }
function printUTM() { print( "Northing: ".(int)$this->utmNorthing.", Easting: ".(int)$this->utmEasting.", Zone: ".$this->utmZone); }
//
// Set/Get/Output Lambert Conic Conformal Coordinates
//
function setLambert($easting, $northing)
{
$this->lccNorthing = $northing;
$this->lccEasting = $easting;
}
function lccN() { return $this->lccNorthing; }
function lccE() { return $this->lccEasting; }
function printLambert() { print( "Northing: ".(int)$this->lccNorthing.", Easting: ".(int)$this->lccEasting); }

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Convert Longitude/Latitude to ECEF XYZ
//
//
function convertLLtoECEF()
{

//Make sure the longitude is between -180.00 .. 179.9
$LongTemp = ($this->long+180)-(integer)(($this->long+180)/360)*360-180; // -180.00 .. 179.9;
$LatRad = deg2rad($this->lat);
$LongRad = deg2rad($LongTemp);
$Height = $this->h;

$N = $this->a / sqrt(1-$this->e2*sin($LatRad)*sin($LatRad));

$this->ecefX = ($N + $Height) * cos($LatRad) * cos($LongRad);
$this->ecefY = ($N + $Height) * cos($LatRad) * sin($LongRad);
$this->ecefZ = ($N * (1 - $this->e2) + $Height) * sin($LatRad);

}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Convert ECEF XYZ to Longitude/Latitude
//
//
function convertECEFtoLL()
{
$X = $this->ecefX;
$Y = $this->ecefY;
$Z = $this->ecefZ;

$a = $this->a;
$e2 = $this->e2;

$b = $a * sqrt(1-$e2);
$p = sqrt($X * $X + $Y * $Y);
$ee2 = ($a * $a - $b * $b) / ($b * $b);
$phi = atan(($Z * $a) / ($p * $b));


$this->lat = atan(($Z + $ee2 * $b * sin($phi) * sin($phi) * sin($phi)) / ($p - $e2 * $a * cos($phi) * cos($phi) * cos($phi)) );
$this->long = atan2($Y,$X);
$N = $this->a / sqrt(1-$this->e2*sin($this->lat)*sin($this->lat));
$this->h = ($p / cos($this->lat)) - $N;

$this->lat = rad2deg($this->lat);
$this->long = rad2deg($this->long);

}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Fix ECEF XYZ Datums
//
//
function ChangeDATUMbyXYZ($fromDatum, $toDatum)
{
$this->ecefX += $this->xyz[$fromDatum][3];
$this->ecefY += $this->xyz[$fromDatum][4];
$this->ecefZ += $this->xyz[$fromDatum][5];

$this->ecefX -= $this->xyz[$toDatum][3];
$this->ecefY -= $this->xyz[$toDatum][4];
$this->ecefZ -= $this->xyz[$toDatum][5];


$this->a = $this->ellipsoid[$this->xyz[$toDatum][0]][0]; // Set datum Equatorial Radius
$this->e2 = $this->ellipsoid[$this->xyz[$toDatum][0]][1]; // Set datum Square of eccentricity
$this->datum = $this->xyz[$toDatum][0]; // Save the datum


}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Convert Longitude/Latitude to UTM
//
// Equations from USGS Bulletin 1532
// East Longitudes are positive, West longitudes are negative.
// North latitudes are positive, South latitudes are negative
// Lat and Long are in decimal degrees
// Written by Chuck Gantz- chuck dot gantz at globalstar dot com, converted to PHP by
// Brenor Brophy, brenor dot brophy at gmail dot com
//
// UTM coordinates are useful when dealing with paper maps. Basically the
// map will can cover a single UTM zone which is 6 degrees on longitude.
// So you really don't care about an object crossing two zones. You just get a
// second map of the other zone. However, if you happen to live in a place that
// straddles two zones (For example the Santa Babara area in CA straddles zone 10
// and zone 11) Then it can become a real pain having to have two maps all the time.
// So relatively small parts of the world (like say California) create their own
// version of UTM coordinates that are adjusted to conver the whole area of interest
// on a single map. These are called state grids. The projection system is the
// usually same as UTM (i.e. Transverse Mercator), but the central meridian
// aka Longitude of Origin is selected to suit the logitude of the area being
// mapped (like being moved to the central meridian of the area) and the grid
// may cover more than the 6 degrees of lingitude found on a UTM map. Areas
// that are wide rather than long - think Montana as an example. May still
// have to have a couple of maps to cover the whole state because TM projection
// looses accuracy as you move further away from the Longitude of Origin, 15 degrees
// is usually the limit.
//
// Now, in the case where we want to generate electronic maps that may be
// placed pretty much anywhere on the globe we really don't to deal with the
// issue of UTM zones in our coordinate system. We would really just like a
// grid that is fully contigious over the area of the map we are drawing. Similiar
// to the state grid, but local to the area we are interested in. I call this
// Local Transverse Mercator and I have modified the function below to also
// make this conversion. If you pass a Longitude value to the function as $LongOrigin
// then that is the Longitude of Origin that will be used for the projection.
// Easting coordinates will be returned (in meters) relative to that line of
// longitude - So an Easting coordinate for a point located East of the longitude
// of origin will be a positive value in meters, an Easting coordinate for a point
// West of the longitude of Origin will have a negative value in meters. Northings
// will always be returned in meters from the equator same as the UTM system. The
// UTMZone value will be valid for Long/Lat given - thought it is not meaningful
// in the context of Local TM. If a NULL value is passed for $LongOrigin
// then the standard UTM coordinates are calculated.
//
function convertLLtoTM($LongOrigin = NULL)
{
$k0 = 0.9996;
$falseEasting = 0.0;

//Make sure the longitude is between -180.00 .. 179.9
$LongTemp = ($this->long+180)-(integer)(($this->long+180)/360)*360-180; // -180.00 .. 179.9;
$LatRad = deg2rad($this->lat);
$LongRad = deg2rad($LongTemp);

if (!$LongOrigin)
{ // Do a standard UTM conversion - so findout what zone the point is in
$ZoneNumber = (integer)(($LongTemp + 180)/6) + 1;
// Special zone for South Norway
if( $this->lat >= 56.0 && $this->lat < 64.0 && $LongTemp >= 3.0 && $LongTemp < 12.0 ) // Fixed 1.1
$ZoneNumber = 32;
// Special zones for Svalbard
if( $this->lat >= 72.0 && $this->lat < 84.0 )
{
if( $LongTemp >= 0.0 && $LongTemp < 9.0 ) $ZoneNumber = 31;
else if( $LongTemp >= 9.0 && $LongTemp < 21.0 ) $ZoneNumber = 33;
else if( $LongTemp >= 21.0 && $LongTemp < 33.0 ) $ZoneNumber = 35;
else if( $LongTemp >= 33.0 && $LongTemp < 42.0 ) $ZoneNumber = 37;
}
$LongOrigin = ($ZoneNumber - 1)*6 - 180 + 3; //+3 puts origin in middle of zone
//compute the UTM Zone from the latitude and longitude
$this->utmZone = sprintf("%d%s", $ZoneNumber, $this->UTMLetterDesignator());
// We also need to set the false Easting value adjust the UTM easting coordinate
$falseEasting = 500000.0;
}
$LongOriginRad = deg2rad($LongOrigin);

$eccPrimeSquared = ($this->e2)/(1-$this->e2);

$N = $this->a/sqrt(1-$this->e2*sin($LatRad)*sin($LatRad));
$T = tan($LatRad)*tan($LatRad);
$C = $eccPrimeSquared*cos($LatRad)*cos($LatRad);
$A = cos($LatRad)*($LongRad-$LongOriginRad);

$M = $this->a*((1 - $this->e2/4 - 3*$this->e2*$this->e2/64 - 5*$this->e2*$this->e2*$this->e2/256)*$LatRad
- (3*$this->e2/8 + 3*$this->e2*$this->e2/32 + 45*$this->e2*$this->e2*$this->e2/1024)*sin(2*$LatRad)
+ (15*$this->e2*$this->e2/256 + 45*$this->e2*$this->e2*$this->e2/1024)*sin(4*$LatRad)
- (35*$this->e2*$this->e2*$this->e2/3072)*sin(6*$LatRad));

$this->utmEasting = ($k0*$N*($A+(1-$T+$C)*$A*$A*$A/6
+ (5-18*$T+$T*$T+72*$C-58*$eccPrimeSquared)*$A*$A*$A*$A*$A/120)
+ $falseEasting);

$this->utmNorthing = ($k0*($M+$N*tan($LatRad)*($A*$A/2+(5-$T+9*$C+4*$C*$C)*$A*$A*$A*$A/24
+ (61-58*$T+$T*$T+600*$C-330*$eccPrimeSquared)*$A*$A*$A*$A*$A*$A/720)));
if($this->lat < 0)
$this->utmNorthing += 10000000.0; //10000000 meter offset for southern hemisphere
}
//
// This routine determines the correct UTM letter designator for the given latitude
// returns 'Z' if latitude is outside the UTM limits of 84N to 80S
// Written by Chuck Gantz- chuck dot gantz at globalstar dot com, converted to PHP by
// Brenor Brophy, brenor dot brophy at gmail dot com
//
function UTMLetterDesignator()
{
if((84 >= $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 72)) $LetterDesignator = 'X';
else if((72 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 64)) $LetterDesignator = 'W';
else if((64 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 56)) $LetterDesignator = 'V';
else if((56 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 48)) $LetterDesignator = 'U';
else if((48 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 40)) $LetterDesignator = 'T';
else if((40 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 32)) $LetterDesignator = 'S';
else if((32 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 24)) $LetterDesignator = 'R';
else if((24 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 16)) $LetterDesignator = 'Q';
else if((16 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 8)) $LetterDesignator = 'P';
else if(( 8 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= 0)) $LetterDesignator = 'N';
else if(( 0 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -8)) $LetterDesignator = 'M';
else if((-8 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -16)) $LetterDesignator = 'L';
else if((-16 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -24)) $LetterDesignator = 'K';
else if((-24 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -32)) $LetterDesignator = 'J';
else if((-32 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -40)) $LetterDesignator = 'H';
else if((-40 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -48)) $LetterDesignator = 'G';
else if((-48 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -56)) $LetterDesignator = 'F';
else if((-56 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -64)) $LetterDesignator = 'E';
else if((-64 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -72)) $LetterDesignator = 'D';
else if((-72 > $this->lat) && ($this->lat >= -80)) $LetterDesignator = 'C';
else $LetterDesignator = 'Z'; //This is here as an error flag to show that the Latitude is outside the UTM limits

return($LetterDesignator);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Convert UTM to Longitude/Latitude
//
// Equations from USGS Bulletin 1532
// East Longitudes are positive, West longitudes are negative.
// North latitudes are positive, South latitudes are negative
// Lat and Long are in decimal degrees.
// Written by Chuck Gantz- chuck dot gantz at globalstar dot com, converted to PHP by
// Brenor Brophy, brenor dot brophy at gmail dot com
//
// If a value is passed for $LongOrigin then the function assumes that
// a Local (to the Longitude of Origin passed in) Transverse Mercator
// coordinates is to be converted - not a UTM coordinate. This is the
// complementary function to the previous one. The function cannot
// tell if a set of Northing/Easting coordinates are in the North
// or South hemesphere - they just give distance from the equator not
// direction - so only northern hemesphere lat/long coordinates are returned.
// If you live south of the equator there is a note later in the code
// explaining how to have it just return southern hemesphere lat/longs.
//
function convertTMtoLL($LongOrigin = NULL)
{
$k0 = 0.9996;
$e1 = (1-sqrt(1-$this->e2))/(1+sqrt(1-$this->e2));
$falseEasting = 0.0;
$y = $this->utmNorthing;

if (!$LongOrigin)
{ // It is a UTM coordinate we want to convert
sscanf($this->utmZone,"%d%s",$ZoneNumber,$ZoneLetter);
if($ZoneLetter >= 'N')
$NorthernHemisphere = 1;//point is in northern hemisphere
else
{
$NorthernHemisphere = 0;//point is in southern hemisphere
$y -= 10000000.0;//remove 10,000,000 meter offset used for southern hemisphere
}
$LongOrigin = ($ZoneNumber - 1)*6 - 180 + 3; //+3 puts origin in middle of zone
$falseEasting = 500000.0;
}

// $y -= 10000000.0; // Uncomment line to make LOCAL coordinates return southern hemesphere Lat/Long
$x = $this->utmEasting - $falseEasting; //remove 500,000 meter offset for longitude

$eccPrimeSquared = ($this->e2)/(1-$this->e2);

$M = $y / $k0;
$mu = $M/($this->a*(1-$this->e2/4-3*$this->e2*$this->e2/64-5*$this->e2*$this->e2*$this->e2/256));

$phi1Rad = $mu + (3*$e1/2-27*$e1*$e1*$e1/32)*sin(2*$mu)
+ (21*$e1*$e1/16-55*$e1*$e1*$e1*$e1/32)*sin(4*$mu)
+(151*$e1*$e1*$e1/96)*sin(6*$mu);
$phi1 = rad2deg($phi1Rad);

$N1 = $this->a/sqrt(1-$this->e2*sin($phi1Rad)*sin($phi1Rad));
$T1 = tan($phi1Rad)*tan($phi1Rad);
$C1 = $eccPrimeSquared*cos($phi1Rad)*cos($phi1Rad);
$R1 = $this->a*(1-$this->e2)/pow(1-$this->e2*sin($phi1Rad)*sin($phi1Rad), 1.5);
$D = $x/($N1*$k0);

$tlat = $phi1Rad - ($N1*tan($phi1Rad)/$R1)*($D*$D/2-(5+3*$T1+10*$C1-4*$C1*$C1-9*$eccPrimeSquared)*$D*$D*$D*$D/24
+(61+90*$T1+298*$C1+45*$T1*$T1-252*$eccPrimeSquared-3*$C1*$C1)*$D*$D*$D*$D*$D*$D/720); // fixed in 1.1
$this->lat = rad2deg($tlat);

$tlong = ($D-(1+2*$T1+$C1)*$D*$D*$D/6+(5-2*$C1+28*$T1-3*$C1*$C1+8*$eccPrimeSquared+24*$T1*$T1)
*$D*$D*$D*$D*$D/120)/cos($phi1Rad);
$this->long = $LongOrigin + rad2deg($tlong);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Configure a Lambert Conic Conformal Projection
//
// falseEasting & falseNorthing are just an offset in meters added to the final
// coordinate calculated.
//
// longOfOrigin & LatOfOrigin are the "center" latitiude and longitude of the
// area being projected. All coordinates will be calculated in meters relative
// to this point on the earth.
//
// firstStdParallel & secondStdParallel are the two lines of longitude (that
// is they run east-west) that define where the "cone" intersects the earth.
// Simply put they should bracket the area being projected.
//
// google is your friend to find out more
//
function configLambertProjection ($falseEasting, $falseNorthing,
$longOfOrigin, $latOfOrigin,
$firstStdParallel, $secondStdParallel)
{
$this->falseEasting = $falseEasting;
$this->falseNorthing = $falseNorthing;
$this->longOfOrigin = $longOfOrigin;
$this->latOfOrigin = $latOfOrigin;
$this->firstStdParallel = $firstStdParallel;
$this->secondStdParallel = $secondStdParallel;
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Convert Longitude/Latitude to Lambert Conic Easting/Northing
//
// This routine will convert a Latitude/Longitude coordinate to an Northing/
// Easting coordinate on a Lambert Conic Projection. The configLambertProjection()
// function should have been called prior to this one to setup the specific
// parameters for the projection. The Northing/Easting parameters calculated are
// in meters (because the datum used is in meters) and are relative to the
// falseNorthing/falseEasting coordinate. Which in turn is relative to the
// Lat/Long of origin The formula were obtained from URL:
// http://www.ihsenergy.com/epsg/guid7_2.html.
// Code was written by Brenor Brophy, brenor dot brophy at gmail dot com
//
function convertLLtoLCC()
{
$e = sqrt($this->e2);

$phi = deg2rad($this->lat); // Latitude to convert
$phi1 = deg2rad($this->firstStdParallel); // Latitude of 1st std parallel
$phi2 = deg2rad($this->secondStdParallel); // Latitude of 2nd std parallel
$lamda = deg2rad($this->long); // Lonitude to convert
$phio = deg2rad($this->latOfOrigin); // Latitude of Origin
$lamdao = deg2rad($this->longOfOrigin); // Longitude of Origin

$m1 = cos($phi1) / sqrt(( 1 - $this->e2*sin($phi1)*sin($phi1)));
$m2 = cos($phi2) / sqrt(( 1 - $this->e2*sin($phi2)*sin($phi2)));
$t1 = tan((pi()/4)-($phi1/2)) / pow(( ( 1 - $e*sin($phi1) ) / ( 1 + $e*sin($phi1) )),$e/2);
$t2 = tan((pi()/4)-($phi2/2)) / pow(( ( 1 - $e*sin($phi2) ) / ( 1 + $e*sin($phi2) )),$e/2);
$to = tan((pi()/4)-($phio/2)) / pow(( ( 1 - $e*sin($phio) ) / ( 1 + $e*sin($phio) )),$e/2);
$t = tan((pi()/4)-($phi /2)) / pow(( ( 1 - $e*sin($phi ) ) / ( 1 + $e*sin($phi ) )),$e/2);
$n = (log($m1)-log($m2)) / (log($t1)-log($t2));
$F = $m1/($n*pow($t1,$n));
$rf = $this->a*$F*pow($to,$n);
$r = $this->a*$F*pow($t,$n);
$theta = $n*($lamda - $lamdao);

$this->lccEasting = $this->falseEasting + $r*sin($theta);
$this->lccNorthing = $this->falseNorthing + $rf - $r*cos($theta);
}
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Convert Easting/Northing on a Lambert Conic projection to Longitude/Latitude
//
// This routine will convert a Lambert Northing/Easting coordinate to an
// Latitude/Longitude coordinate. The configLambertProjection() function should
// have been called prior to this one to setup the specific parameters for the
// projection. The Northing/Easting parameters are in meters (because the datum
// used is in meters) and are relative to the falseNorthing/falseEasting
// coordinate. Which in turn is relative to the Lat/Long of origin The formula
// were obtained from URL http://www.ihsenergy.com/epsg/guid7_2.html. Code
// was written by Brenor Brophy, brenor dot brophy at gmail dot com
//
function convertLCCtoLL()
{
$e = sqrt($this->e2);

$phi1 = deg2rad($this->firstStdParallel); // Latitude of 1st std parallel
$phi2 = deg2rad($this->secondStdParallel); // Latitude of 2nd std parallel
$phio = deg2rad($this->latOfOrigin); // Latitude of Origin
$lamdao = deg2rad($this->longOfOrigin); // Longitude of Origin
$E = $this->lccEasting;
$N = $this->lccNorthing;
$Ef = $this->falseEasting;
$Nf = $this->falseNorthing;

$m1 = cos($phi1) / sqrt(( 1 - $this->e2*sin($phi1)*sin($phi1)));
$m2 = cos($phi2) / sqrt(( 1 - $this->e2*sin($phi2)*sin($phi2)));
$t1 = tan((pi()/4)-($phi1/2)) / pow(( ( 1 - $e*sin($phi1) ) / ( 1 + $e*sin($phi1) )),$e/2);
$t2 = tan((pi()/4)-($phi2/2)) / pow(( ( 1 - $e*sin($phi2) ) / ( 1 + $e*sin($phi2) )),$e/2);
$to = tan((pi()/4)-($phio/2)) / pow(( ( 1 - $e*sin($phio) ) / ( 1 + $e*sin($phio) )),$e/2);
$n = (log($m1)-log($m2)) / (log($t1)-log($t2));
$F = $m1/($n*pow($t1,$n));
$rf = $this->a*$F*pow($to,$n);
$r_ = sqrt( pow(($E-$Ef),2) + pow(($rf-($N-$Nf)),2) );
$t_ = pow($r_/($this->a*$F),(1/$n));
$theta_ = atan(($E-$Ef)/($rf-($N-$Nf)));

$lamda = $theta_/$n + $lamdao;
$phi0 = (pi()/2) - 2*atan($t_);
$phi1 = (pi()/2) - 2*atan($t_*pow(((1-$e*sin($phi0))/(1+$e*sin($phi0))),$e/2));
$phi2 = (pi()/2) - 2*atan($t_*pow(((1-$e*sin($phi1))/(1+$e*sin($phi1))),$e/2));
$phi = (pi()/2) - 2*atan($t_*pow(((1-$e*sin($phi2))/(1+$e*sin($phi2))),$e/2));

$this->lat = rad2deg($phi);
$this->long = rad2deg($lamda);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// This is a useful function that returns the Great Circle distance from the
// gPoint to another Long/Lat coordinate
//
// Result is returned as meters
//
function distanceFrom($lon1, $lat1)
{
$lon1 = deg2rad($lon1); $lat1 = deg2rad($lat1); // Added in 1.3
$lon2 = deg2rad($this->Long()); $lat2 = deg2rad($this->Lat());

$theta = $lon2 - $lon1;
$dist = acos(sin($lat1) * sin($lat2) + cos($lat1) * cos($lat2) * cos($theta));

// Alternative formula supposed to be more accurate for short distances
// $dist = 2*asin(sqrt( pow(sin(($lat1-$lat2)/2),2) + cos($lat1)*cos($lat2)*pow(sin(($lon1-$lon2)/2),2)));
return ( $dist * 6366710 ); // from http://williams.best.vwh.net/avform.htm#GCF
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// This function also calculates the distance between two points. In this case
// it just uses Pythagoras's theorm using TM coordinates.
//
function distanceFromTM(&$pt)
{
$E1 = $pt->E(); $N1 = $pt->N();
$E2 = $this->E(); $N2 = $this->N();

$dist = sqrt(pow(($E1-$E2),2)+pow(($N1-$N2),2));
return $dist;
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// This function geo-references a geoPoint to a given map. This means that it
// calculates the x,y pixel coordinate that coresponds to the Lat/Long value of
// the geoPoint. The calculation is done using the Transverse Mercator(TM)
// coordinates of the gPoint with respect to the TM coordinates of the center
// point of the map. So this only makes sense if you are using Local TM
// projection.
//
// $rX & $rY are the pixel coordinates that corespond to the Northing/Easting
// ($rE/$rN) coordinate it is to this coordinate that the point will be
// geo-referenced. The $LongOrigin is needed to make sure the Easting/Northing
// coordinates of the point are correctly converted.
//
function gRef($rX, $rY, $rE, $rN, $Scale, $LongOrigin)
{
$this->convertLLtoTM($LongOrigin);
$x = (($this->E() - $rE) / $Scale) // The easting in meters times the scale to get pixels
// is relative to the center of the image so adjust to
+ ($rX); // the left coordinate.
$y = $rY - // Adjust to bottom coordinate.
(($rN - $this->N()) / $Scale); // The northing in meters
// relative to the equator. Subtract center point northing
// to get relative to image center and convert meters to pixels
$this->setXY((int)$x,(int)$y); // Save the geo-referenced result.
}
} // end of class gPoint

?>