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Sergey A. Babkin
<> or <>
(Do not edit this file, it is generated from FONTS.html!!!)

for the TTF to Type1 converter and fonts generated by it

There is historically a number of problems with the support of the 8-bit
character encodings. This installation guide pays a lot of attention
to the 8-bit issues, because these issues are responsible for the
most of troubles during the installation of fonts. But they are
not the only things covered in this guide, so it's worth reading
even if all you need is plain ASCII. For convenience of reading
I have marked the paragraphs dealing solely with 8-bit problems
with characters *8*.

To simplify this installation the distribution package of the
converter contains a number of scripts written in shell and
Perl. So, to run them you will need a shell interpreter (Bourne-shell,
POSIX-shell, Korn-shell are OK, ba-shell is probably also OK but not 
tested yet). The Perl scripts were tested with Perl5 but probably
should work with Perl4 too. All the scripts are located in the
`scripts' subdirectory.

This guide considers the following issues of installation of the 

- X11
- Ghostscript
- MS Windows
- Netscape Navigator/Communicator
- Linux RPM package
- FrameMaker
- StarOffice


To simplify the conversion a set of scripts is provided with ttf2pt1.
They are collected in the `scripts' subdirectory. 

`Convert' is the master conversion script provided with ttf2pt1. 
When installed into a public directory it's named `ttf2pt1_convert' 
to avoid name collisions with the other programs.

It's called as:

  convert [config-file]

If the configuration file is not specified as an argument then the file
`convert.cfg' in the current directory is used. This file contains
a set of configuration variables. The distribution contains a sample file
file `convert.cfg.sample'. Please copy it to `convert.cfg',
look inside it and change the configuration variables. The more stable
configuration variables, such as the path names of the scripts and
encoding files are located in `convert' itself, they are
automatically updated when installing ttf2pt1.

Put all the TTF fonts you want to convert into some directory (this
may be just the directory that already contains all the Windows
fonts on a mounted FAT filesystem). If you have fonts in different
source encoding then put the fonts in each of the encodings
into a separate directory. Up to 10 source directories are
supported. If you (in a rather unlikely case) have more source
directories then you can make two separate runs of the converter,
converting up to 10 directories at a time.

The variables in the configuration file are:

SRCDIRS - the list of directories (with absolute paths) with 
  TTF fonts. Each line contains at least 3 fields: the name of the directory,
  the language of the fonts in it (if you have fonts for different 
  languages you have to put them into the separate directories) and the
  encoding of the fonts. Again, if you have some of the TTF typefaces in 
  one encoding, and some in another (say, CP-1251 and KOI-8), you have 
  to put them into the separate source directories. Some lines may contain
  4 fields. Then the fourth field is the name of the external map to
  convert the Unicode fonts into the desirable encoding. This map is
  used instead of the built-in map for the specified language.

An interesting thing is that some languages have more than one
widely used character encodings. For example, the widely used
encodings for Russian are IBM CP-866 (MS-DOS and Unix), KOI-8
(Unix and VAX, also the standard Internet encoding), IBM CP-1251 (MS Windows).
That's why I have provided the means to generate the converted fonts
in more than one encoding. See the file encodings/README for 
details about the encoding tables. Actually, if you plan to use
these fonts with Netscape Navigator better use the aliases
cp-866 instead of ibm-866 and windows-1251 instead of ibm-1251
because that's what Netscape wants.

DSTDIR - directory for the resulting Type1 fonts. Be careful!
  This directory gets completely wiped out before conversion,
  so don't use any already existing directory for this purpose.

DSTENC{language} - the list of encodings in which the destination 
  fonts will be generated for each language. Each font of that 
  language will be generated in each of the specified
  encodings. If you don't want any translation, just specify both
  SRCENC and DSTENC as iso8859-1 (or if you want any other encoding
  specified in the fonts.dir, copy the description of 8859-1 with
  new name and use this new name for SRCENC and DSTENC).

FOUNDRY - the foundry name to be used in the fonts.dir file. I have
  set it to `fromttf' to avoid name conflicts with any existing font for
  sure. But this foundry name is not registered in X11 standards and
  if you want to get the full standard compliance or have a font server
  that enforces such a compliance, use `misc'.

The next few parameters control the general behavior of the converter.
They default values are set to something reasonable.

CORRECTWIDTH - if the value is set to YES then use the 
  converter option -w, otherwise don't use it. See the description of 
  this option in the README file.

REMOVET1A - if the value is set to YES then after
  conversion remove the un-encoded .t1a font files and the 
  intermediate .xpfa font metric files.

INSTALLFONTMAP - a Ghostscript parameter, if the value is set to 
  YES then install the entries for the new fonts
  right into the main Fontmap file. Otherwise just leave
  the file Fontmap.ttf in the Ghostscript configuration

HINTSUBST - if the value is set to YES use the option
  -H, otherwise don't use it. This option enables the
  hint substitution technique. If you have not installed the X11 patch
  described above, use this option with great caution. See further 
  description of this option in the README file.

ENFORCEISO - if the value is set to YES then
  disguise the resulting fonts as the fonts in ISOLatin1 encoding. Historically
  this was neccessary due to the way the installer scripts created the
  X11 font configuration files. It is not neccessary any more for this
  purpose. But if you plan to use these fonts with some other application
  that expects ISOLatin1 encoding then better enable this option.

ALLGLYPHS - if the value is set to YES then
  include all the glyphs from the source fonts into the resulting fonts, even
  if these glyphs are inaccessible. If it's set to NO then
  include only the glyphs which have codes assigned to them. The glyphs
  without codes can not be used directly. But some clever programs,
  such as the Type 1 library from XFree86 3.9 and higher can change
  the encoding on the fly and use another set of glyphs. If you have not 
  installed the X11 patch described above, use this option with great 
  caution. See further description of the option option -a in the 
  README file.

GENUID - if the value is set to YES then use
  the option -uA of the converter to generate UniqueIDs for
  the converted fonts. The standard X11 Type 1 library does not use
  this ID, so it may only be neccessary for the other applications.
  The script is clever enough to generate different UniqueID for the
  same font converted to multiple encodings. Also after conversion it
  checks all the fonts generacted during the session for duplicated
  UniqueID and shows those. Still, this does not quarantee that these
  UniqueIDs won't overlap with some other fonts. The UniqueIDs are
  generated as hash values from the font names, so it's guaranteed
  that if the `convert' script runs multiple times it will
  generate the same UniqueIDs during each run. See further description 
  of this option in the README file.

GENUID - if the value is set to YES then create
  the .pfb files, otherwise the .pfa files. The .pfb
  files are more compact but contain binary data, so you may experience some
  troubles when transferring them through the network.

The following parameters are used to locate the other scripts and
configuration files. By default the scripts do a bit of guessing for them:
they search in the ttf2pt1 installation directory if ttf2pt1
was installed or otherwise suppose that you are running `convert' with
`scripts' subdirectory being the current directory.

ENCDIR - directory containing the descriptions of encodings
MAPDIR - directory containing the external map files

Besides that a few parameters are built into the `convert' script itself.
You probably won't need to change them:

T1ASM, TTF2PT1, TRANS, T1FDIR, FORCEISO - paths to the other script

Also there are a few parameters controlling the installation of
fonts for Ghostscript. Please look at their description in the 
Ghostscript section of documentation or in the ttf2pt1_x2gs(1)
manual page before running `convert'. If these parameters are
set, `convert' will call the `x2gs' script automatically
to install the newly converted fonts in Ghostscript.

After creating the configuration file run the `convert' script. Look at
the result and the log file in DSTDIR.

Add the directory with newly converted fonts to the configuration
of X server or font server. For most of the systems this step is
very straightforward. For HP-UX it's rather tricky and poorly
documented, so the file FONTS.hpux gives a short description.

If you don't have the privileges of the root user, you still can
configure your private font server. Just use some non-standard
port number (see FONTS.hpux for an example, exept that you won't
need all the HP-related stuff on any other system).

Known Problems

- One catch is that the X11 Type 1 font library has a rather low limit
  on the font size. Because of this the fonts with  more complicated
  outlines and the enabled hint substitution may not fit into
  this limit. The same applies to the fonts with very complicated
  outlines or with very many glyphs (especially the fonts with
  over 256 glyphs). So you will need to excercise caution with
  these options if you plan using these fonts with X11. Some vendors 
  such as HP provide the Type 1 implementation licensed from Adobe 
  which should have no such problem.

  But there is a solution even for the generic X11. A patch located
  in the subdirectory `app/X11' fixes this problem as well
  as some other minor problems. Its description is provided in

  To fix the X11 font library, you have to get the X11 sources. I
  can recommend the ftp sites of the XFree86 project
  or of the Open Group This patch was made on the sources
  of XFree86 so you may have better success with applying it to the
  XFree86 distribution. After you have got the sources, make sure
  that you can compile them. Then apply the patch as described.
  Make sure that it was applied properly. Compile the sources again
  (actually, you need only the fonts library, the fonts server, and
  possibly the X server). It would be prudent now to save your old
  font library, font server and, possibly, X server. Then install
  the new recently compiled versions of these files. Of course,
  if you know someone who already has compiled these files for the
  same OS as yours, you can just copy the binary fles from him.

  Alas, building the X11 system from the source code is not the
  easiest thing in the world and if you have no experience it
  can be quite difficult. In this case just avoid the aforementioned
  features or check each converted font to make sure that it
  works properly.

- The Type1 font library from the standard X11 distribution
  does not work on HP-UX (at least, up to 10.01). The font server
  supplied with HP-UX up to 10.01 is also broken. Starting from 
  HP-UX 10.20 (I don't know about 10.10) they supply a proprietary font 
  library and the converted fonts work fine with it, provided that
  they are configured properly (see the file FONTS.hpux).

- The fonts.scale files created by the older versions of the
  ttf2pt1 installation program (up to release 3.1) have conflicted 
  with the language definitions of the Xfsft font server and
  parts of it included into XFree86. To overcome this incompatibility
  the never versions creats the fonts.scale file describing all the
  fonts as belonging to the adobe-fontspecific encoding and
  the fonts.alias file with the proper names. The drawback of
  this solution is that xlsfonts gives the list of twice more
  fonts. But as a side effect the option ENFORCEISO in
  `convert.cfg' is not required for X11 any more.

- The conversion script has no support for Eastern multi-plane fonts.
  Contribution of such a support would be welcome.


The fonts generated with ttf2pt1 work fine with Ghostscript by
themselves. The script `x2gs' (or `ttf2pt1_x2gs' when installed
into a public directory, to avoid name conflicts with other
programs) links the font files from the X11 direcotry into the Ghostscript 
directory and automatically creates the description file (Fontmap) 
in Ghostscript format.

It's called as:

  x2gs [config-file]

If the configuration file is not specified as an argument then the file
`convert.cfg' in the current directory is used, just like the
`convert' script does. Indeed, this configuration file is used for 
both scripts.

The Ghostscript-related parameters in the configuration file are:

DSTDIR - the X11 font directory used by `x2gs' as the
  source of the fonts. This parameter is common with the X11 

GSDIR - the base directory of Ghostsript. If this
  parameter is set to an empty string then `convert' won't
  call `x2gs'. So if you want to get only the X11 fonts
  installed then set this parameter to an empty string. This 
  directory may vary on various system, so please check your 
  system and set this value accordingly before running the script.

GSFONTDIR - the font directory of Ghostscript. In the standard
  Ghostscript installation it's a subdirectory of GSDIR
  but some systems may use completely different directories.

GSCONFDIR - the configuration subdirectory of Ghostscript
  that contains the Fontmap file.

INSTALLFONTMAP - if the value is set to YES then 
  install the entries for the new fonts right into the main 
  Fontmap file. Otherwise just leave the file Fontmap.ttf
  in the Ghostscript configuration directory.

After preparing the configuration file run the script. It symbolicaly links 
all the font files and creates the description file Fontmap.ttf in 
GSCONDFIR. After that there are two choices. 

If the option INSTALLFONTMAP was set to YES then 
the font descriptions are also automatically installed into the
master Fontmap file. The script is clever enough to
detect if it was run multiple times with the same directories
and if so it replaces the old Fontmap entries with
the new ones instead of just accumulating all of them. You
may also run it multiple times for multiple X11 directories
and all the results will be properly collected in the Fontmap.
But it's your responsibility to watch that the names of the
font files don't overlap. If the X11 font directory gets
renamed then you have to remove its font entries from the
Fontmap and only after that re-run `x2gs'
for the new directory. 

On the other hand if the option INSTALLFONTMAP was set to 
NO then go to the GSCONFDIR directory and insert the 
contents of Fontmap.ttf into the Fontmap file
manually. This step may be left manual to make the installation
a little bit more safe. 

After that you may also want to redefine some of the aliases in 
Fontmap to refer to the newly installed fonts.
But the redefinition of the aliases may be dangerous if the width of
characters in the new font will be different from the old font.
Alas, there is no visible solution of this problem yet.

MS Windows

Ttf2pt1 can be built on Windows either with native compiler or in
POSIX emulation mode.

Native MS Windows compilers require a different way to build the converter 
instead of the Makefile (their make programs commonly are quite weird
and limited in capabilities). An example of batch file winbuild.bat
is provided for MS Visual C/C++. Probably it can be easily adapted for other 
32-bit Windows and DOS compilers. The important part is to define the 
preprocessor symbol WINDOWS during compilation.

Cygnus make almost supports full Makefiles but not quite. Seems
like its POSIX support is also of the same quality "almost but not quite".
So another command file is provided for Cygnus GNU C, also 
with the preprocessor symbol WINDOWS defined. It is intended to be run from
the Cygnus BASH shell. To run the programs produced by the Cygnus compiler 
the Cygnus library file CYGWIN1.DLL should be copied first into 

To run the accompanying scripts Perl for Windows will be required as well as 
other tools from the Cygnus set.

The Windows support was not particularly tested, so in case of problems with
building or running the converter please let us know.

The pre-built code (possibly of an older version) of ttf2pt1 for MS Windows is
available from the GnuWin32 project from

Netscape Navigator/Communicator

Basically, the biggest problem with Netscape Navigator is that
it has built-in fixed PostScript font names and built-in fixed 
glyph tables for them. Oh, no, that's two! Let's start over: 
basically the two biggest problems of Netscape Navigator are 
that (one)it has built-in fixed PostScript font names and (two)
built-in fixed glyph tables for them and (three) it always
assumes that the fonts have ISOLatin1 encoding. OK, let's
start over again: basically the three biggest problems of Netscape 
Navigator are that (one) it has built-in fixed PostScript font names, 
(two) built-in fixed glyph tables for them and (three) it always
assumes that the fonts have ISOLatin1 encoding and (four) it
does not remember the scaled font size between the sessions.
You did not expect such a Spanish Inquisition, did you ? (*)

Luckily, we have solutions for all of these problems. They are
located in the subdirectory `app/netscape' and described
in app/netscape/README.

  *) See Monty Python's Flying Circus, episode 15

Netscape and cyrillic fonts
(courtesy of Zvezdan Petkovic)

If you use TrueType fonts in your X, as I do, and you always get
KOI8-R encoded pages, then your Netscape does not recognise windows-1251
encoding.  Microsoft TrueType fonts simply declare all encodings they
can support including KOI8-R.  For some reason, KOI8-R always wins over
ISO-8859-5 in Netscape under X.  If you are reading other cyrillic
languages besides Russian, you might want to either erase KOI8-R entries
from the fonts.dir and fonts.scale files, or alternatively fix Netscape.
I put this line in my .Xdefaults.

    Netscape*documentFonts.charset*koi8-r:               iso-8859-5

Notice that you can still read Russian sites without trouble because
Netscape translates KOI8-R to ISO-8859-5 on the fly. I read both Russian
and Serbian sites with no trouble.

Note: If anybody knows the way to tell Netscape under Unix how to 
recognise {windows,ibm,cp}-1251 encoded fonts, I'd like to hear about that.

Linux RPM package

The spec file for the creation of a Linux RPM package is located in 
app/RPM. It has been contributed by Johan Vromans.  When 
make all is ran in the main directory it among the other 
things creates the version of itself adapted to Linux in app/RPM,
you may want to copy that version back to the main directory.

Warning: Please note that the install section is incomplete, and 
the installed scripts won't work until the paths inside them
are corrected.


The fonts and AFM files generated by the version 3.2 and higher 
should work with Framemaker without problems. The AFM files 
generated by the previous versions of the converter require a 
line added to them:

  EncodingScheme FontSpecific

And the underscores in the font names of the font and AFM files 
generated by the older versions may need to be changed to dashes.

NOTE by Jason Baietto: Ignore the directions in the Frame on-line docs 
that say to put a "serverdict begin 0 exitserver" line in the pfa files.  
Doing this caused both my printer and ghostscript to choke on the resulting
output from FrameMaker, so I would not advise doing this (though your
mileage may vary).


StarOffice 5.1x has been reported to crash if the .afm file contains
spaces in the values of such statements as Version, Weight etc.
These spaces are permitted by the Adobe spec, so this is a problem of
StarOffice. The easiest way to fix these .afm files for StarOffice
is to remove spaces in these strings or remove these strings (in case if
they are optional) at all. This can be done automatically with a sed
script. It seems that StarOffice 5.2 has this problem fixed, so we decided to
spend no efforts on providing workarounds for 5.1 with ttf2pt1.

For more information send a message to info at phpclasses dot org.