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Quick Start for the Formgenerator

This blog contains a general introduction to designing and creating a form with the form generator package. For a better understanding, the individual steps are gradually explained using a simple example.

Overview

  1. Designing the Form - The first Steps - Basic structure of the Form - Creating the input Elements - Bring up the form to the Page
  2. Connecting the form with Data - The data to be processed by the Form - Specifying select options

<a name="chapter-1"></a>

1. Designing the Form

The basis of every form is an instance of the FormGenerator class or the XMLForm class (which is an extension of FormGenerator) if the form is to be read from an XML definition file.

> Coding the form direct in PHP or using an XML file? > In principle, (almost) all functions of the package are available when > defining a form using an XML file. Which of the two methods is used depends > on the one hand on the particular preferences of the developer, or on > whether the form to be created always has exactly the same structure or not. > If, for example, due to user rights or other externally changeable factors, > different elements of the form are to be shown / hidden or provided with > write protection, this can only be implemented by direct coding!

For the Quick Start we first choose the direct coding in PHP. The complete source can be found in the example directory of the package (QuickStart.php). The XML-Version is also in this directory (QuickStartXML.php and xml/QuickStart.xml)

<a name="chapter-1-1"></a>

1.1. The first Steps

declare(strict_types=1);

require_once '../autoloader.php';

use SKien\Config\JSONConfig;
use SKien\Formgenerator\ArrayFormData;
use SKien\Formgenerator\FormGenerator;
use ...

// defining data array for test purposes
...

// creating the main form instance
$oFG = new FormGenerator($oData);

// load the configuration to use
$oConfig = new JSONConfig('./MSO-Theme/FormGenerator.json');
$oFG->setConfig($oConfig);

// the formaction.php script just displays the POSTED values 
// for demonstration
$oFG->setAction('formaction.php');
$oFG->setTarget('_blank');

  1. Since the complete package works with `strict_types`, we also use them here ;-)
  2. The package uses namespaces and follows the PSR-4 recomendation, so we only have to include the autoloader.php.
  3. Next follows the use statements for all Classes we use in the example.
  4. Since in most cases a form is not only used to enter new data, it must be possible to pass the data to be processed. The structure of the data is described later in a separate section of this blog.
  5. Now we'r creating the instance of our Form: `$oFG = new FormGenerator($oData);`.
  6. In the next step we load our desired configuration file and pass it to the form.  
    A detailed desvription of the configuration can be found in FG-config.md
     $oConfig = new JSONConfig('./MSO-Theme/FormGenerator.json');
     $oFG->setConfig($oConfig);
    
  7. Now we have to specify the script (and maybe the target '_blank' or '_parent') to be 
    called when submiting the form. In our example we call a small script that simply 
    echoes all data that is POSTED. The output is opened in a new window.
     $oFG->setAction('formaction.php');
     $oFG->setTarget('_blank');
    

Now we are ready to define our form.

<a name="chapter-1-2"></a>

1.2. Basic structure of the Form

Let's take a look at our example form and then break it down into its basic structure:

<img src="QuickStartStructure.png" alt="QuickStartStructure"/>

...and now let us build this structur with the appropriate objects:

$oFG->setColWidth([20, 80], '%');
...

$oFG->add(new FormHeader('Quick Start Example', 1));

$oFS = $oFG->addFieldSet('Name');
$oFL = $oFS->addLine('Lastname:');
... 
$oFL = $oFS->addLine('Firstname:');
...
$oFL = $oFS->addLine('Nickname:');
...

$oFS = $oFG->addFieldSet('Personal Data');
$oFS->setColWidth([20, 25, 20, 35], '%');
$oFL = $oFS->addLine('Gender:');
...
$oFL = $oFS->addLine('Height:');
...

$oFG->add(new FormButtonBox(FormButtonBox::SAVE | 
                            FormButtonBox::DISCARD, 
                            FormFlags::ALIGN_RIGHT));

  1. For the entire form we define two columns with a width of 20% and 80%. This 
    column definition is inherited by all child elements by default, but can 
    be overridden by any of these elements:
     $oFG->setColWidth([20, 80], '%');
    
  2. The Header is the first visible element:
     $oFG->add(new FormHeader('Quick Start Example', 1));
    
  3. Since this form does not contain multiple DIVs, we can leave these out and 
    continue with the first field set:
     $oFS = $oFG->addFieldSet('Name');
    
  4. Now we can add the three labeled lines to this field set: 
     $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Lastname:');
     ...
     $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Firstname:');
     ...
     $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Nickname:');
     ...
    
  5. We continue with the second fieldset, for which we now define four columns 
    with the widths 20%, 25%, 20% and 35%, so that the multi-column rows are 
    also correctly rendered. The two lines with the appropriate (first) label 
    are also added to this element :
     $oFS = $oFG->addFieldSet('Personal Data');
     $oFS->setColWidth([20, 25, 20, 35], '%');
     $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Gender:');
     ...
     $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Height:');
     ...
    
  6. Finally we define the standard buttons for saving or discarding the data:
     $oFG->add(new FormButtonBox(FormButtonBox::SAVE | 
                                 FormButtonBox::DISCARD, 
                                 FormFlags::ALIGN_RIGHT));
    

<a name="chapter-1-3"></a>

1.3. Creating the input Elements

Now that we have created the basic structure of the form, the input elements follow next.

   $oFG->setColWidth([20, 80], '%');

-> $oFG->add(new FormInput('ID', 0, FormFlags::HIDDEN));

   $oFG->add(new FormHeader('Quick Start Example', 1));

   $oFS = $oFG->addFieldSet('Name');
   $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Lastname:');
-> $oFL->add(new FormInput('strLastname', '100%', FormFlags::MANDATORY, 50));
   $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Firstname:');
-> $oFL->add(new FormInput('strFirstname', '100%', 0, 50));
   $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Nickname:');
-> $oFL->add(new FormInput('strNickname', '100%', 0, 50));

   $oFS = $oFG->addFieldSet('Personal Data');
   $oFS->setColWidth([20, 25, 20, 35], '%');
   $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Gender:');
-> $oCtrl = new FormSelect('strGender', 1, FormFlags::MANDATORY);
-> $oCtrl->setSelectOptions(['' => '', 'male' => 'm', 'female' => 'f', 'diverse' => 'd']);
-> $oFL->add($oCtrl);
-> $oFL->add(new FormStatic('Birthday:'));
-> $oFL->add(new FormDate('dateDoB', FormFlags::NO_ZERO | FormFlags::ADD_DATE_PICKER));
   $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Height:');
-> $oCtrl = new FormInt('iHeight', 4);
-> $oCtrl->setSuffix('cm');
-> $oFL->add($oCtrl);
-> $oFL->add(new FormStatic('Weight:'));
-> $oCtrl = new FormFloat('fltWeight', 5, 1);
-> $oCtrl->setSuffix('kg');
-> $oFL->add($oCtrl);

   $oFG->add(new FormButtonBox(FormButtonBox::SAVE | 
                               FormButtonBox::DISCARD, 
                               FormFlags::ALIGN_RIGHT));

  1. To identify the data thas is edited, we create a hidden input field holding
    the internal ID.
     $oFG->add(new FormInput('ID', 0, FormFlags::HIDDEN));
    
  2. The first fieldset consists of three Lines, each containing a single Text input 
    element. The length of text to be entered is limited to 50 chars. The `mandatory` flag 
    for the 'lastname' element means that an entry is required in this field.  
     $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Lastname:');
     $oFL->add(new FormInput('strLastname', '100%', FormFlags::MANDATORY, 50));
     $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Firstname:');
     $oFL->add(new FormInput('strFirstname', '100%', 0, 50));
     $oFL = $oFS->addLine('Nickname:');
     $oFL->add(new FormInput('strNickname', '100%', 0, 50));
    
  3. With the second fieldset, things get a little more complex. The two lines each 
    contain two input elements with the associated labeling. The left-hand label is 
    set directly when the line is created, the label for the second input element is 
    created as an independent static element. In total we have four different types 
    for input here:
    - A selection list. The value 1 for the size defines the selection as a drop-down 
      list. Here, too, the mandatory flag ensures that the user makes a selection. 
      Available select options are <empty>, male, female and diverse.
     $oCtrl = new FormSelect('strGender', 1, FormFlags::MANDATORY);
     $oCtrl->setSelectOptions(['' => '', 'male' => 'm', 'female' => 'f', 'diverse' => 'd']);
     $oFL->add($oCtrl);
    
    - The second label and a date element. The 'No Zero' Flag specifies, that nothing will be outputed, if
      the value for this element is zero (otherwise, the element would show '00.00.0000')
    
    $oFL->add(new FormStatic('Birthday:')); $oFL->add(new FormDate('dateDoB', FormFlags::NO_ZERO | FormFlags::ADD_DATE_PICKER));
    - A field for entering an integer. We specify a input length of four char and the 
      element is supplemented with the unit 'cm'. 
    
    $oCtrl = new FormInt('iHeight', 4); $oCtrl->setSuffix('cm'); $oFL->add($oCtrl);
    - With the last label and an input field for a floating point number with one 
      decimal place, we finish the definition of our form. 
    
    $oFL->add(new FormStatic('Weight:')); $oCtrl = new FormFloat('fltWeight', 5, 1); $oCtrl->setSuffix('kg'); $oFL->add($oCtrl);

<a name="chapter-1-4"></a>

1.4. Bring up the form to the Web

So far we have defined our form - now it's time to bring it up to a simple HTML page. First we need to retrieve three sections from our Formgenerotor Instance: - the HTML markup itself - additional style definitions - some dynamicaly generated javascript

$strFormHTML = $oFG->getForm();
$strStyleFromPHP = $oFG->getStyle();
$strConfigFromPHP = $oFG->getScript();

and embed this parts in a (very) simple HTML page:

<html>
    <head>
    	<title>Quick Start Example</title>
        <link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="./MSO-Theme/FormGenerator.css">
        <style>
            <?php echo $strStyleFromPHP; ?>
        </style>

        <script type="text/javascript" src="../script/FormGenerator.js"></script>
        <script>
    	    <?php echo $strConfigFromPHP; ?>
        </script>
    </head>
    <body style="background-color: #777; width: 100%; padding-top: 20px;">
        <div style="width:400px; margin: 0px auto; background-color: transparent;">
        	<?php echo $strFormHTML; ?>
        </div>
    </body>
</html>

In the <head> section of the HTML we have to link to a styleshhet that defines all CSS for the formgenerator. The package's example directory contains two templates (FormGenerator.css and MSO-Theme / FormGenerator.css). > A more detailed description of the FormGenerator stylesheet will soon be part of > another blog.

Behind the stylesheet we insert the dynamic generated styles from the Formgenerator in a <style>block.

For all JS functionality (initialization, validation, ...) we only need to include the FormGenerator.js scriptfile. If any further scriptfile is needed, it will be loaded automaticaly. As the last element required in the header, we insert the dynamic script, that was build by the Formgenerator.

In the example, the HTML body simply consists of a DIV so that the form is highlighted against a dark background. In real use, in the most cases, this is a DIV that is located somewhere within the layout of the website.

Using the MSO-Theme stylesheet the result of this quick start looks as follows:

<img src="QuickStartMSO.png" alt="QuickStartMSO"/>

by only changing the stylesheet (... and some values in the configuration) the result changes to:

<img src="QuickStartSKien.png" alt="QuickStartSKien"/>

<a name="chapter-2"></a>

2. Connecting the form with Data

The form must (in most cases) be linked to a data provider. The data provider can not only be used to transfer the data to be processed to the form. He can also be used to specify select option lists (for select elements or radio groups) if these will not be included in the form definition.

The Dataprovider must implement the FormDataInterface.

If no existing data have to be edited and there are no select options to specify, a null value can be passed to the construcor. In this case an NullFormData Instance is created internally.

The simplest - and in many cases applicable - data provider used in the example is the ArrayFormData Provider. The data to be processed is passed as an associative array. Optionally, one or more select option lists can also be specified.

<a name="chapter-2-1"></a>

2.1. The data to be processed by the Form

// defining data array for test purposes
$aData = [
    'ID' => 24,
    'strLastname' => 'Johnson',
    'strFirstname' => 'Dwayne ',
    'strNickname' => 'the Rock',
    'strGender' => 'm',
    'dateDoB' => '1972-05-02',
    'iHeight' => 196,
    'fltWeight' => 116.0,
];

$oData = new ArrayFormData($aData);

A common use case is that the data to be processed results from a database query. This can easily be implemented e.g. with mysqli as follows:

$oDB = new \mysqli('MyHost', 'MyName', 'MySecret', 'MyDB');
$oResult = $oDB->query('SELECT * FROM myTable WHERE ID = 24');
if ($oResult && $oResult->num_rows === 1) {
    $aData = $oResult->fetch_array(MYSQLI_ASSOC);
    $oData = new ArrayFormData($aData);
}

<a name="chapter-2-2"></a>

2.2. Specifying select options

Select options can either be set directly in the form definition for a contained Select element or RadioGroup or be transferred via the data provider.

In both cases a option list have to be an associative array with any count of text => value pairs:

   ['text1' => value1, 'text2' => value2, ..., 'textN' => valueN];

Pass it directly to the element:

    $oElement = $new FormSelect('ElementName', 1);
    $oElement->setSelectOptions(['option1' => value1, ..., 'optionN' => valueN]);

Pass it to the dataprovider: The selection lists for any number of elements are passed in a nested array:

$aData = [...];
$aOptions = [
    'ElementName1' => ['text11' => 'value11', ..., 'text1N' => 'value1N'],
    'ElementName2' => ['text21' => 'value21', ..., 'text2N' => 'value2N'],
    ...
]
$oData = new ArrayFormData($aData, $aOptions);

The best practice to specify avalable select option depends on each special case: - If the options are fixed values (which may be language dependent), it is better to specify them in the form definition (in PHP or XML). - If the options are flexible values from any data source, the definition via the data provider is probably the better choice.


For more information send a message to info at phpclasses dot org.