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Zebra MPTT: Store a tree using the MPTT algorithm in MySQL

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2019-04-18 (7 months ago) RSS 2.0 feedNot enough user ratingsTotal: 109 All time: 9,171 This week: 358Up
Version License PHP version Categories
zebra_mptt 1.0.0GNU Lesser Genera...5PHP 5, Databases, Data types
Description Author

This package can be used to store a tree using the MPTT algorithm in MySQL.

It can create a tree of nodes and add nodes passing a value to store in each tree node as well an object to the parent node, which can be 0 for the root node.

The package can also perform other operations with nodes like moving nodes to other positions, get the whole tree as a multi-dimensional array or get only the children of a given tree node.

Innovation Award
PHP Programming Innovation award winner
April 2019
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Many applications need to manage information that is stored in tree-like hierarchical data structures.

This package can manage trees efficiently in a MySQL database using the MPTT algorithm.

Manuel Lemos
Name: Stefan Gabos <contact>
Classes: 12 packages by
Country: Romania Romania
Age: 40
All time rank: 321 in Romania Romania
Week rank: 677 Down7 in Romania Romania Down
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Winner: 1x

 

Details

<img src="https://github.com/stefangabos/zebrajs/blob/master/docs/images/logo.png" alt="zebrajs" align="right">

Zebra_Mptt

A PHP library providing an implementation of the modified preorder tree traversal algorithm

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What is Modified Preorder Tree Traversal

MPTT is a fast algorithm for storing hierarchical data (like categories and their subcategories) in a relational database. This is a problem that most of us have had to deal with, and for which we've used an adjacency list, where each item in the table contains a pointer to its parent and where performance will naturally degrade with each level added as more queries need to be run in order to fetch a subtree of records.

The aim of the modified preorder tree traversal algorithm is to make retrieval operations very efficient. With it you can fetch an arbitrary subtree from the database using just two queries. The first one is for fetching details for the root node of the subtree, while the second one is for fetching all the children and grandchildren of the root node.

The tradeoff for this efficiency is that updating, deleting and inserting records is more expensive, as there's some extra work required to keep the tree structure in a good state at all times. Also, the modified preorder tree traversal approach is less intuitive than the adjacency list approach because of its algorithmic flavour.

For more information about the modified preorder tree traversal method, read this excellent article called Storing Hierarchical Data in a Database.

What is Zebra_Mptt

Zebra_Mptt is a PHP library that provides an implementation of the modified preorder tree traversal algorithm making it easy to implement the MPTT algorithm in your PHP applications.

It provides methods for adding nodes anywhere in the tree, deleting nodes, moving and copying nodes around the tree and methods for retrieving various information about the nodes.

Zebra\_Mptt uses table locks making sure that database integrity is always preserved and that concurrent MySQL sessions don't compromise data integrity. Also, Zebra_Mptt uses a caching mechanism which has as result the fact that regardless of the type, or the number of retrieval operations, the database is read only once per script execution!

:books: Check out the awesome documentation!

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Features

  • provides methods for adding nodes anywhere in the tree, deleting nodes, moving and copying nodes around the tree and methods for retrieving various information about the nodes
  • uses a caching mechanism which has as result the fact that regardless of the type, or the number of retrieval operations, the database is read only once per script execution
  • uses table locks making sure that database integrity is always preserved and that concurrent MySQL sessions don't compromise data integrity
  • uses mysqli extension
  • has awesome documentation
  • code is heavily commented and generates no warnings/errors/notices when PHP's error reporting level is set to E_ALL

Requirements

PHP 5.0.0+, MySQL 4.1.22+

Installation

You can install Zebra_Mptt via Composer

# get the latest stable release
composer require stefangabos/zebra_mptt

# get the latest commit
composer require stefangabos/zebra_mptt:dev-master

Or you can install it manually by downloading the latest version, unpacking it, and then including it in your project

require_once 'path/to/Zebra_Mptt.php';

Install MySQL table

Notice a directory called install containing a file named mptt.sql. This file contains the SQL code that will create the table used by the class to store its data. Import or execute the SQL code using your preferred MySQL manager (like phpMyAdmin or the fantastic Adminer) into a database of your choice.

How to use

// include the Zebra_Mptt class
require 'path/to/Zebra_Mptt.php';

// instantiate a new object
$mptt = new Zebra_Mptt();

// populate the table

// add 'Food' as a topmost node
$food = $mptt->add(0, 'Food');

// 'Fruit' and 'Meat' are direct descendants of 'Food'
$fruit = $mptt->add($food, 'Fruit');
$meat = $mptt->add($food, 'Meat');

// 'Red' and 'Yellow' are direct descendants of 'Fruit'
$red = $mptt->add($fruit, 'Red');
$yellow = $mptt->add($fruit, 'Yellow');

// add a fruit of each color
$cherry = $mptt->add($red, 'Cherry');
$banana = $mptt->add($yellow, 'Banana');

// add two kinds of meat
$mptt->add($meat, 'Beef');
$mptt->add($meat, 'Pork');

// move 'Banana' to 'Meat'
$mptt->move($banana, $meat);

// get a flat array of descendants of 'Meat'
$mptt->get_children($meat);

// get a multidimensional array (a tree) of all the data in the database
$mptt->get_tree();

:books: Check out the awesome documentation!

  Files folder image Files  
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Files folder imagedocs (3 files, 2 directories)
Files folder imageexamples (1 file)
Files folder imageinstall (1 file)
Accessible without login Plain text file CHANGELOG.md Data Auxiliary data
Accessible without login Plain text file composer.json Data Auxiliary data
Accessible without login Plain text file license.txt Doc. Documentation
Accessible without login Plain text file README.md Doc. Documentation
Plain text file Zebra_Mptt.php Class Class source

  Files folder image Files  /  docs  
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Files folder imagemedia (2 files)
Files folder imageZebra_Mptt (1 file)
  Accessible without login HTML file elementindex_Zebra_Mptt.html Doc. Documentation
  Accessible without login HTML file index.html Doc. Documentation
  Accessible without login Plain text file README.md Doc. Documentation

  Files folder image Files  /  docs  /  media  
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  Accessible without login Plain text file reset.css Data Auxiliary data
  Accessible without login Plain text file style.css Data Auxiliary data

  Files folder image Files  /  docs  /  Zebra_Mptt  
File Role Description
  Accessible without login HTML file Zebra_Mptt.html Doc. Documentation

  Files folder image Files  /  examples  
File Role Description
  Accessible without login Plain text file index.php Example Example script

  Files folder image Files  /  install  
File Role Description
  Accessible without login Plain text file mptt.sql Data Auxiliary data

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